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THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY              283

not only for Prussia and the other Protestant States of Germany,
which, like her, made elementary education a matter for State
control, but for all Europe.

Efforts at reform in higher education were less common than
those affecting elementary education. Apart from the private
grammar schools and the dissenting academies of England, the
only movement of any consequence in this direction was the one
that began in Germany with the foundation of the university of
Halle in 1694. There the combination of anti-scholasticism (repre-
sented by Christian Thomasius), rationalism (represented by
Christian Wolff) and unorthodox pietism (represented by Francke)
led to a complete change in university subjects and methods, and
established for the first time the principle of academic freedom
which is the chief corner-stone of modern university life. Once
under way the movement made rapid progress. A new university,
even broader than Halle, was founded at Gottingen in 1737, and
by the end of the century all the universities of Germany > both
Protestant and Catholic, had come into line with the two pioneers.
The results of the innovation, as summarized by Professor Paulsen,
were as follows : " i. The spirit of modern philosophy and
science had invaded all the faculties. 2. The principle of freedom
both in research and in teaching was generally accepted, and
recognized by the Governments as the fundamental law of the
university. 3. Essential changes had taken place in the academic
teaching. The old lectio—i.e., the interpretation of standard
textbooks—had been replaced by the modern lecture—i.e.> the
systematic presentation of a science. The traditional disputations
were also dying out. Their place was taken more and more by the
Seminary which did not aim, like the disputatiqns, at the consolida-
tion of a canon of established truth, but at the introduction to the
independent pursuit of learned studies. 4. The university lectures
were generally delivered in German. 5. The study of the Classics
everywhere ceased to aim at original literary production; the
Neo-Latin literature had died out and its place was taken by the
study of the ancients in the sense of Neo-Humanism, which
sought to penetrate into the spirit of antiquity with the aim of
furthering human culture."*

A very important offshoot of the changes in Halle was the evolu-
tion of a new type of school—the Reahchuh—intended to prepare

* German Education, Past and Present* English translation, pp.